Whether working in rehabilitation, education, mental health or other fields, there are hundreds of thousands of professionals who’ve found their calling as counselors in the United States. This is unsurprising when considering that counseling is a profession that’s in demand and could be personally gratifying, but many people are unaware of what exactly it is that counselors do, how to become a counselor, and what opportunities await counselors. These subjects, and more, are covered below.
What Does a Mental Health Counselor Do?
The American Counseling Association (ACA), the world’s largest professional association exclusively for counselors, describes counseling as a “collaborative effort between the counselor and client” in which the two “identify goals and potential solutions to problems which cause emotional turmoil; seek to improve communication and coping skills; strengthen self-esteem; and promote behavior change and optimal mental health.” Counselors work toward these aims through a variety of methods, but most often by engaging in individual therapy, group discussions, and referrals to other healthcare professionals and social services. The steps to become a counselor include building foundational skills and expertise in one of these specializations, typically through graduate degree programs in counseling or similar fields, as well as obtaining state-issued license.
Steps to Becoming a Mental Health Counselor
As mentioned above, counselors must typically complete undergraduate and postgraduate degree programs, in addition to securing licensure from the state in which they intend to legally practice. Sometimes counselors may also opt for pursuing their Doctorate in Counseling. The steps to become a counselor are as follows:
Step 1: Undergraduate Education
As far as undergraduate education goes, aspiring counselors can pick from almost any field they desire, as long as it is offered by an accredited school. While some colleges and universities may offer a Bachelor’s in Counseling, many do not. Thus, most graduate counseling programs — as well as the American Counseling Association — recommend that a student looking to become a counselor obtain a bachelor’s in a related subject, such as psychology, or any other liberal arts major.
Step 2: Post Graduate Education
The aspiring counselor’s choices of counseling graduate programs are better defined. Of course, the best option is a Master’s in Counseling from a program accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling & Related Educational Programs (CACREP), but state licensing agencies may also be open to candidates holding post-graduate degrees in related fields.
Step 3: Licensure
After graduation from a graduate counseling program, aspiring counselors should pursue state licensure for practice. While the licensure requirements will vary from state to state, the process typically involves verification of completed coursework, proof of citizenship, recommendations from academic, practicum, or internship supervisors, and satisfactory examination results. Although some state licensing boards have developed their own examinations, many rely on one of two tests offered by the National Board for Certified Counselors: the National Counselor Examination or the National Clinical Mental Health Counseling Examination. For the definitive list of your state’s requirements, please visit your state's counseling licensing board. Some states also have policies of reciprocity, wherein they will grant licenses to licensed counselors from other states, and endorsement, wherein they will consider granting licenses to licensees from other states through review.
Types of Counselors
Although the foundational skills of counseling can apply to different populations, some people want to become a counselor to help particular clients. Some types of counselors include mental health, career, school, rehabilitation and substance abuse. Master’s in Counseling degree programs may offer tracks or electives which allow students to specialize in the area of their choice, such as career, college, school, and mental health counselor. State licensing agencies may similarly offer specialty licensure in these areas through coursework verification and certification, such as that offered by the National Board for Certified Counselors.
Types of Counseling Degrees
Bachelor’s Degree in Counseling
Professional counselors often have requirements stipulating they hold at least a Master’s in Counseling or a similar degree in a related field, thus a worthwhile Bachelor’s in Counseling program should prepare graduates for their graduate studies. This should include courses in psychology, mental health, therapy, substance abuse, ethics, and, of course, counseling. Bachelors in Counseling programs will also often require a capstone or internship, in which students use their learned clinical skills on-site at social service or healthcare facilities.
Master’s Degree in Counseling
Master’s degree in counseling programs should be accredited by CACREP to best prepare you for your state’s counseling licensure. According to CACREP, a Master’s in Counseling degree program should consist of graduate-level study with a minimum of 60 semester credit hours or 90 quarter credit hours. These hours should cover eight common core areas:
professional counseling orientation and ethical practice
social and cultural diversity
human growth and development
counseling and helping relationships
group counseling and group work
assessment and testing
research and program evaluation
In addition, the program should incorporate both a practicum of at least 100 clock hours over a full academic term, including at least 40 hours of direct client service, and an internship of at least 600 hours of supervised counseling, with at least 240 hours of direct client service.
Mental Health Counseling
In addition to the common core curriculum described above, CACREP stipulates requirements for specialties, like mental health counseling. These standards cover foundational, contextual, and practical elements that come together to provide students with the knowledge and skills necessary to operate within the mental health setting. They range from coursework in neurobiology and psychopharmacology, to experience in intake interviews and mental health intervention.
Careers in Counseling
The general skills and specialized knowledge provided by counselor education programs to assist students to become counselors actually may equip them to pursue a variety of careers. Although the specific context of each profession differs from the next, they are all united in helping people surmount the obstacles in their lives.
Rehabilitation counselors assist clients with physical, mental, developmental, or emotional disabilities to live independent lives. They frequently provide counseling to help clients adjust to their disabilities, connect them with treatment and training, and advocate for their rights in the community and workplace.
2017 Average Pay for Rehabilitation Counselors: $34,860 Entry-Level Education: Master’s in Counseling or a related field Estimated Job Growth Through 2026: 13 percent
School and Career Counseling
School and career counselors guide students in the development of their academic, social, and professional skills. They may often provide individual evaluation for employment prospects, counsel students through personal issues, and work with them to develop their organizational skills and plans for the future.
2017 Average Pay for School and Career Counselors: $55,410 Entry-Level Education: Master’s in Counseling or a related field Estimated Job Growth Through 2026: 13 percent
Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder, and Mental Health Counseling
Substance abuse, behavioral disorder, and mental health counselors support clients experiencing alcoholism, drug addiction, eating disorders, mental health disorders, or a wide variety of other behavioral conditions. They typically counsel clients in both individual and group settings, develop treatment plans with them and their families, and provide education on substance abuse, behavioral disorders, and mental health issues.
2017 Average Pay for Substance Abuse, Behavioral Disorder and Mental Health Counselors: $43,300 Entry-Level Education: Bachelors in Counseling or a related field Estimated Job Growth Through 2026: 23 percent